DHARMA & BALINESE
95% of all Balinese are Hindu Dharma. Hindu Dharma
is the combination of Hinduism and Buddhism to achieve the peace and harmony of life. They
believe in God called Ida Sang Hyang Widdhi Wasa, manifested onto three sacred forms
called: Trisakti; consists of:
- Brahma The Creator
- Shiwa The Transformer
- Wisnu The Preserver
Worship God is the inseparable religious activities in daily life.
Unending series of ceremonies that begin from birth up to
There are three spiritual guidances in Balinese social life based on Hindu, consist of:
Tattwa (philosophy), Susila (ethic or moral codes), Upacara (rituals).
Susila is moral codes or ethic emphasized on three behaviors, e.g.:
- Positive thinking.
- Positive talking.
- Positive action (behave).
known as Trikaya Parisuda. Related to those moral codes it is also mentioned Tat Twam
Asi, freely translated into "I am you" or "You are me", which controls
and prevents intentional bad behaviors. If someone disable these moral codes, he will get
a social punishment that he will be ignored or underestimated by the society.
Tattwa tells about Panca Crada, the five principles belief or Cradas which are belief in
the existence of:
- Brahman: belief in The One and Supreme God or in Hindu Balinese known as Ida Sang Hyang
A lot of temples was built to dedicate The God, Brahman, the ancestors, and the soul of
the died relatives.
- Atman: The Soul.
- Samsara: Reincarnation.
Having birth is one of the accesses to reincarnation of the soul. There are spiritual
rules for birth control.
- Karma: The law of cause and effect.
A belief that if we treat someone badly; then soon or later we will get the revenge.
- Moksha: Unity with God (Nirvana).
A belief that positive behavior in daily life will guide the soul to the God head after a
few times reincarnations.
- UPACARA (RITES)
Upacara are religious ceremonies classified into five classifications:
- Dewa Yadnya: Rites related to worship God, gods, mainly temple festivals.
- Rsi Yadnya: Rites related to prophet, priest or priesthood.
- Pitra Yadnya: Rites related to the death.
- Manusa Yadnya: Rites related to social human beings.
- Buta Yadnya: Sacrifices to placate the negative or demonic forces (Butas).
These classifications determined in periodically such as semi annual or annual temple festivals, ordination rites, life cycle rites, funeral and
There are three prosperity guidance in the form of harmony relationship between:
- People and God.
Performed in religious behaviors and rituals that the people make offerings to God.
- People and People.
Performed in the traditional laws in written or unwritten.
- People and Environment.
Performed in common ritual traditions in respect to the nature and environment guided from
Balinese calendar. They believe in good days and bad days, described in these following
- Tumpek days: the days of worship and respect (good days).
- Tumpek Uduh: the days to respect and make offerings to trees.
- Tumpek Kandang: the days to respect and make offerings to animals.
- Tumpek Landep: the days to respect and make offerings to objects or materials and also
metal things such as motor bikes, cars, music instruments, etc.
- Tumpek Wayang: the days to respect and make offerings to the human food sources.
- Ingkel days: environment taboo weeks come in turns yearly:
- Ingkel wong: taboo in disrespect other peoples.
- Ingkel sato: taboo in disrespect animals.
- Ingkel mina: taboo in disrespect fishes.
- Ingkel manuk: taboo in disrespect birds.
- Ingkel taru: taboo in disrespect trees.
- Ingkel buku: taboo in disrespect bamboo and sugar canes.
The individual who properly implements those philosophies in his daily life, will make
him religious, respect to other peoples and his environment. This is to achieve the
balance in spiritual and material, eternal release and Moksha the ultimate goal.
Samsara is a failure to achieve the Moksha, that the soul is still bound to the chain of